Hematoma – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

 Hematoma is a collection of abnormal blood outside the blood vessels. This condition can occur when the walls of the arteries, capillaries or veins are damaged so that the blood comes out to the tissue that is not the place.
Hematomas are often also called bruises, but usually bruising or bruising is used to refer to milder conditions, while hematomas are often used to describe more serious conditions when blood buildup covers areas that are larger or even cause swelling .
This collection of blood can occur in any part of the body, from small to large, and causes the surrounding tissue to feel painful or swollen. In addition to causing swelling, the hematoma can also cause pain, the appearance of skin tones that tend to be reddish, and warmth to the affected parts of the hematoma.

Causes of hematoma

Hematomas often occur due to trauma or fungi that often occur due to hard impact, falls, broken bones, dislocations, or even sneezing that occurs very hard.
Hematoma itself tends to be easy to occur in mothers who are pregnant or have just given birth. Not only that, those who experience injuries such as cracks in the bones and women who are menstruating – where blood comes out in the form of clumping will also trigger the emergence of a hematoma.
Blood disorders that often result in hematomas are immune thrombocytopenia purpura(ITP), an autoimmune disease that causes platelets to be destroyed in excess. ITP usually occurs in children, and is preceded by a previous viral infection. In addition, people who get blood thinners regularly are also more prone to developing hematomas.
There are several things that increase a person’s risk of having a hematoma including:
  • Certain medical conditions or diseases that cause decreased platelet counts or loss of platelet function, such as aplastic anemia and viral infections.
  • Anticoagulant drugs can increase the risk of bleeding and the spread of the hematoma, because the body cannot form blood clots and repair damaged blood vessels.
  • Aneurysms, abnormal bumps in the arterial wall.

Hematoma Symptoms

In general, the symptoms or features of a hematoma that can be seen are the appearance of blackish blue spots or bluish red on the skin. If the spot is pressed, it will feel painful. Besides the symptoms of the hematoma also depends on the condition of the hematoma location and size. But in general, the symptoms that arise include: swelling in the hematoma area and purplish red hematoma area (feels pain when pressed).
Please note, there are many types of hematoma, but usually the classification of this hematoma is based on where this hematoma is found in parts of the body. For example, the ear hematoma occurs in the lower part of the ear skin, it is caused by bleeding in the cartilage structure of the ear. Meanwhile, breast hematoma occurs due to internal bleeding in the breast,

Diagnosis of hematoma

If the symptoms seen and expressed by the patient lead to a hematoma, the doctor can proceed with a physical examination, especially in the area of ​​the hematoma. Physical examination can diagnose hematomas that occur in the skin and soft tissue.
Physical examination and some tests will be recommended. After that, the doctor can then do patch tests on the skin, where various substances in small amounts are applied to the skin under the adhesive.
After that, the doctor will examine the skin to see if you experience a reaction to the substance. This type of test is best done at least 2 weeks after the hematoma disappears and is most useful to see if you have contact allergies.
Meanwhile, in the case of an invisible hematoma, a scan is required, for example a CT scan to see a hematoma in the brain or in the abdominal cavity. Investigation is also needed to determine the risk factors, causes, or complications that have occurred, such as X-rayexamination to determine the presence of bone fractures resulting in a hematoma, or blood tests to determine platelet levels and blood clotting time.
But if the hematoma is suspected to be caused by a blood disorder or because of the use of blood thinners, the doctor will generally ask the patient to do a blood test. Such as: platelet examination, bleeding time, and examination of blood clotting factors ( activated partial thromboplastin time / APTT and prothrombine time / PT).

Hematoma treatment

How to treat hematoma is usually enough to do just by resting the body or by giving ice cube compresses on the affected part of the hematoma or by lifting the affected body part of the hematoma higher than the heart to reduce blood flow to the area that has bleeding. In this way the hematoma can usually subside.
Hematomas located in the legs generally disappear longer than hematomas that occur in the arms or other parts of the body. Meanwhile, in patients using anticoagulation treatment, ibuprofen is not recommended because of the risk of digestive tract bleeding. Patients with liver disease should not use over-the-counter acetaminophen.
Even so, how to treat hematoma depends on the body part and condition. In the case of widespread intracranial hematoma it is sometimes necessary to deal with surgery. Actions that can be done is removing blood by opening the skull or craniotomy.
For those of you who want to prevent the occurrence of hematoma, as much as possible reduce activities that make you experience collisions. Some people who get blood thinners , you should consult a doctor first
Although a hematoma is not a serious disorder for health, a hematoma can cause inflammation and swelling. Both of these can cause several complications, namely: irritation and infection.

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